Sab saum toj 10 Mines Hauv Ntiaj Teb (1-5)

05. Carajás, Brazil

KARAGAS yog lub ntiaj teb loj tshaj plaws tsim cov hlau ore, nrog kwv yees li ntawm 7.2 bn tonnes.Nws Lub Tuam Txhab Mine, Vale, tus kws tshaj lij Brazilian hlau thiab mining tshwj xeeb, yog lub ntiaj teb loj tshaj plaws tsim cov hlau ore thiab npib tsib xee thiab ua haujlwm cuaj qhov chaw siv hluav taws xob.Lub mine yog siv los ntawm Tukurui hydroelectric dam nyob ze, ib qho ntawm Brazil tus tsim tau zoo tshaj plaws thiab thawj qhov dej num ua kom tiav hauv Amazon rainforest.Tukuri, txawm li cas los xij, nyob sab nraud Vale txoj cai.Karagas hlau ore yog ib lub pob zeb nyob rau hauv Vale lub kaus mom.Nws cov pob zeb muaj 67 feem pua ​​​​ntawm cov hlau thiab yog li muab cov ore zoo tshaj plaws.Cov chaw ua haujlwm ntawm cov mine npog 3 feem pua ​​​​ntawm tag nrho Brazilian teb chaws hav zoov, thiab CVRD tau cog lus los tiv thaiv 97 feem pua ​​​​los ntawm kev sib koom tes nrog ICMBIO thiab IBAMA.Ntawm lwm qhov kev tsim kho kom ruaj khov, Vale tau tsim cov txheej txheem rov ua dua tshiab uas ua rau lub tuam txhab rov ua dua 5.2 lab tons ntawm cov nplua nuj nplua nuj nyob hauv cov pas dej tailings.

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Lus piav qhia:

Main mineral: hlau

Tus neeg ua haujlwm: Vale

Pib txij: 1969

Kev tsim tawm txhua xyoo: 104.88 lab tons (2013)

04. Grasberg, Indonesia

Paub ntau xyoo raws li lub ntiaj teb cov nyiaj tso nyiaj loj tshaj plaws, Glasberg kub deposit nyob rau hauv Indonesia yog ib tug raug porphyry kub deposit, uas nws reserves raug xam tias yog negligible nyob rau hauv nruab nrab 1980s, nws tsis yog kom txog rau thaum kev tshawb fawb nyob rau hauv 1988 nyob rau hauv PT Freeport Indonesia uas nws twb nrhiav tau rau. muaj cov tseem ceeb reserves uas tseem raug mined.Nws cov peev txheej tau kwv yees tias muaj nqis txog $ 40 nphom thiab feem ntau yog tus tswv los ntawm Freeport-McMoRan hauv kev koom tes nrog Rio Tinto, yog ib lub ntiaj teb tseem ceeb tshaj plaws mining giants.Lub mine muaj qhov tshwj xeeb teev thiab yog qhov kub tshaj plaws hauv ntiaj teb (5030m).Nws yog ib nrab qhib-qhov thiab ib nrab hauv av.Raws li xyoo 2016, kwv yees li 75% ntawm nws cov khoom tsim tawm los ntawm cov mines qhib.Freeport-McMoRan npaj yuav ua kom tiav lub installation ntawm lub cub tawg tshiab ntawm cov nroj tsuag los ntawm 2022.

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Lus piav qhia:

Main mineral: Kub

Tus neeg teb xov tooj: PT Freeport Indonesia

Pib txij: 1972

Kev tsim tawm txhua xyoo: 26.8 tons (2019)

03. Debmarine, Namibia

Debmarine Namibia yog qhov tshwj xeeb hauv qhov uas nws tsis yog ib qho mine, tab sis kev ua haujlwm ntawm ntug dej hiav txwv mining coj los ntawm Debmarine Namibia, 50-50 kev koom tes ntawm De Beer Group thiab tsoomfwv Namibian.Kev ua haujlwm tau tshwm sim tawm ntawm ntug dej hiav txwv yav qab teb ntawm Namibia thiab lub tuam txhab tau xa ib lub nkoj ntawm tsib lub nkoj kom rov qab tau cov pob zeb diamond.Thaum lub Tsib Hlis 2019, kev sib koom ua lag luam tshaj tawm tias nws yuav tsim thiab tsim lub ntiaj teb thawj lub pob zeb diamond rov qab nkoj, uas yuav pib ua haujlwm hauv 2022 ntawm tus nqi ntawm $ 468 lab.Debmarine Namibia hais tias nws yog qhov kev nqis peev tseem ceeb tshaj plaws hauv keeb kwm ntawm kev lag luam pob zeb diamond marine.Kev ua haujlwm tsuas yog ua los ntawm ob lub thev naus laus zis tseem ceeb: aerial drilling thiab crawler-type mining technologies.Txhua lub nkoj hauv lub nkoj muaj peev xwm taug qab, nrhiav thiab tshawb xyuas cov dej hiav txwv, siv lub xeev-of-the-art drilling thev naus laus zis los ua kom cov khoom siv ntau tshaj plaws.

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Lus piav qhia:

Main ntxhia: pob zeb diamond

Tus neeg teb xov tooj: Debmarine Namibia

Pib txij: 2002

Kev tsim tawm txhua xyoo: 1.4 MILLION CARATS

02. Morenci, USA

Moresi, Arizona, yog ib lub ntiaj teb cov neeg tsim khoom loj tshaj plaws ntawm tooj liab, nrog kwv yees li ntawm 3.2 billion tons thiab cov ntsiab lus tooj liab ntawm 0.16 feem pua.Freeport-McMoRan muaj feem cuam tshuam feem ntau hauv kuv li thiab Sumitomo muaj 28 feem pua ​​​​ntawm nws cov haujlwm.Lub mine tau qhib qhov mining txij li xyoo 1939 thiab tsim txog 102,000 tons ntawm tooj liab ore ib xyoos.Keeb kwm mined underground, lub mine pib hloov mus rau qhib-qhov mining nyob rau hauv 1937. Lub MORESI Mine, uas yog ib feem tseem ceeb ntawm US tub rog ua hauj lwm thaum tsov rog, yuav luag ob npaug rau nws cov zis thaum lub sij hawm Ntiaj Teb Tsov Rog II.Ob ntawm nws cov keeb kwm smelters tau raug tshem tawm thiab rov siv dua, qhov thib ob uas tau tso tseg hauv xyoo 1984. Xyoo 2015, ib txoj haujlwm cog cog metallurgical tau ua tiav, ua kom cov nroj tsuag muaj peev xwm txog li 115,000 tons hauv ib hnub.Lub mine yuav tsum mus txog 2044.

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Lus piav qhia:

Main mineral: tooj liab

Tus neeg teb xov tooj: Freeport-McMoRan

Pib: 1939

Kev tsim khoom txhua xyoo: 102,000 tons

01. Mponeng, South Africa

MPONENG Gold Mine, nyob ntawm 65 km sab hnub poob ntawm Johannesburg thiab ze li ntawm 4 km hauv qab ntawm Gauteng, yog lub ntiaj teb qhov tob tshaj plaws kub deposit los ntawm cov qauv saum npoo.Nrog rau qhov tob ntawm lub mine, lub pob zeb saum npoo kub txog li 66 ° C, thiab cov dej khov slurry tau muab tso rau hauv av, txo cov cua kub hauv qab 30 ° C.Lub mine siv cov cuab yeej siv hluav taws xob taug qab los ua kom muaj kev nyab xeeb ntawm cov miners, cov cuab yeej siv tau sai thiab zoo qhia rau cov neeg ua haujlwm hauv av ntawm cov ntaub ntawv kev nyab xeeb.Anglogold Ashanti yog tswv thiab ua haujlwm rau kuv, tab sis nws pom zoo muag qhov chaw rau Harmony Gold thaum Lub Ob Hlis 2020. Txog rau Lub Rau Hli 2020, Harmony Gold tau nce ntau dua $ 200 lab los pab nyiaj tau los ntawm MPONENG cov cuab tam uas yog AngloGold.

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Lus piav qhia:

Main mineral: Kub

Tus neeg teb xov tooj: Harmony Gold

Pib txij: 1981

Kev tsim khoom txhua xyoo: 9.9 tons


Post lub sij hawm: Feb-22-2022